Face Grain, or Side Grain:  In this orientation, the wood is mounted on the lathe with the grain perpendicular to the floor.  The tree is, therefore, ‘sideways’ in the piece, and it runs side to side.   Many bowls, including the natural edge bowls that Dennis makes are turned in this orientation.  The woodturner is cutting across the bundles of fibers in this orientation, so the work moves out of round more easily than in the end grain orientation.  The choice of orientation is one of the first considerations when designing a piece, since it affects strength and stability, as well as the decorative element of the work.

Flames:  A type of 3-start ribbon twist that was used historically to decorate bedposts.  This is one of the easiest twistwork projects for beginners, and gives a pleasant shape for finials, Christmas ornaments, or bottle-stoppers.

Ogee:  A stretched S-curve used by carpenters and woodturners for both spindle work and bowls.  It allows a gripping surface under the rim of bowls, and provides dramatic emphasis for the rim of natural edge vesssels.

Spindle Work:  The grain of the wood runs vertically in the tree, along the conduits for nutrient transfer.   When a turner does spindle work, the work is mounted so that the grain runs horizontally on the lathe.  This keeps the bundles of fibers in their lengthwise state, where they have the most strength.   Woodturners may also say that a piece is turned ‘end grain’ when it is a bowl or hollow form, if the grain runs vertically through the piece.

Spiral Work:  All cutting and shaping on the lathe that moves around the work in a spiral.  Spiral work includes twist work, which is more commonly used for spirals cut on spindles.  Techniques of Spiral Work by Stuart Mortimer is the comprehensive text for both descriptions and instructions.  Although Stuart has made a variety of furniture, he is currently working on spiral work for vessels.

Thingiebob:    A tool, smaller than a cubit in length, urgently needed, but temporarily lost in the woodshop, most likely in a deep pile of shavings around the lathe.

Thread Chasing:  Threads may be cut in wood using a jig-type thread cutter, in which the uniformity is assured by machinery.  Dennis cuts threads free-hand in the style of the English hardwood and ivory turners.  The lathe speed needs to be slow enough for the turner to develop a steady rhythm for starting the threads.  As they begin to form, the wood pulls the cutter forward.  This motion gives the process the ‘chasing’ nomenclature, although it is, indeed, thread cutting.

Twist Work:  The pinnacle of the woodturner’s art in traditional turning shops in England as recently as the 1960’s, twist work applies carved decoration to spindles used in furniture, architecture, or objects such as candlesticks.  We often think of a twist in terms of braids (French twist), knitting (cable sweathers), or even the double-helix of DNA, and twist work uses both the terminology and the geometry of all of these.  The most common furniture twist is called the ‘barley twist.’  This is merely one of at least a dozen designs, which include the rope twist, cable twist, banner twist, and various combinations of points and beads that wind around the spindle at varying intervals.

Twistification:  A word used by Thomas Jefferson to describe the outcome of  John Marshall’s debate skills.

Dennis offers a demonstration on general twist work which shows the various types of twists, the layout for carving them, and various furniture applications.

Zentangle®:  A decorative type of ink drawing made in a meditative state.  The patterns may be used in your own work, with acknowledgement to the founders of the method, Rick Roberts and Maria Thomas. Thousands of examples are available on the internet, and there are Certified Zentangle Teachers for instruction in the method and the patterns.